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The 54th session of the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH54), co-hosted and co-chaired by USA and Kenya, concluded its work on two annexes for inclusion into the existing Guidelines for the Control of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (CXG 99) in Fresh Leafy Vegetables and in Sprouts. It also completed its work on an annex for inclusion into the existing Guidelines for the Safe Use and Reuse of Water in Milk and Milk Product Manufacturing Process, while seeking extension of the deadline to complete two other annexes on Fish and Fishery Products and on water ft-for-purpose assessment, safety management, and technologies for recovery and treatment of water for reuse. It also approved part of the revisions to other existing guidelines on the control of (a) viruses in food (CXG 79), (b) Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken meat (CXG 78), and (c) Listeria monocytogenes in Foods (CXG 61) while suggesting other revisions. It also advanced the revision of the existing guidelines on the control of pathogenic Vibrio species in seafood (CXG 73), together with its associated completion plan. CCFA54 succeeded to complete the work – in one reading only – of the new Guidelines for Food Hygiene Control Measures in Traditional Markets.

The 54th session of the Codex Alimentarius Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH54) was hosted exceptionally by Kenya and co-chaired by USA and Kenya, while held in Nairobi (Kenya), from 11 to 15 March 2024. It was attended by fifty-seven (57) Codex members, including one regional economic integration organization (i.e., the European Union), as well as by ten (11) observer organizations, as well as representatives of the two parent organisations of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (the FAO and the WHO). Te session was chaired by a new USDA chairperson, Dr Evelyne Mbandi, and co-chaired in part by Pr George Ooko Abong. CCFH55 will be held in the USA towards end 2025 in a location still to be confirmed.


Main Outcome
CCFH54 agreed to forward the amended text for final adoption by the forthcoming (47th) meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC47)2. CCFH54 based its decision on the outcome of the work of a PWG amending itself the outcome of an EWG. CAC46 had adopted in 2003 the General Section, the Annex I on raw beef, and the Annex III on raw milk and raw milk cheeses which was published in CXG 99 (2023 version).

Main Points Discussed on the new Annex for Fresh Leafy Vegetables (see endnote i)
Main Points Discussed on the new Annex for Sprouts (see endnote ii)


CCFH54 considered the outcome of the work of an EWG chaired by the EU and co-chaired by Chile with the technical inputs of the International Dairy Federation (IDF).

CCFH54 agreed to forward for final adoption by the forthcoming CAC47 meeting2 the draft Annex III on Milk and Milk Products, for future inclusion into the Guidelines for the safe use and reuse of water.

CCFH54 however returned for further work out the draft Annex II on Fish and Fishery Products of its Sections 2 and 8 in particular, while noting the general agreement on all the other sections of the Annex II (an EWG chaired by the EU and co-chaired by Morocco, Honduras, Mauritania, India and IDF was tasked to revise the Annex II on Fish and Fishery products accordingly, by focusing the work on Section 2 and Section 8 (e.g. by incorporating the figures from CCCFH54 CRD 33 and revising the text in line with comments received during CCFH54), while comments on the other sections may also be considered).

CCFH54 also agreed to elaborate further the Annex IV related to water ft-for-purpose assessment, safety management, and technologies for recovery and
treatment of water for reuse while part of the Annex III (paras. 32 to 63 in CRD04) was moved from Annex III to Annex IV. The EWG would also consider and, if needed, propose revisions to the General Section and other Annexes of CXC 100 (2023 version) by introducing a cross-reference to Annex IV, as well as
possible examples on the use of technologies. A future PWG chaired by the EU and co-chaired by Honduras, India, Mauritania, Morocco, and IDF may also be held prior CCFH55 to prepare a revised proposal for con-sideration by the CCFH55 plenary. For that purpose, CCEXEC86 and CAC47 were asked to extend the
timeline for completion of this work. A workshop may also be organized by Honduras, to test and validate some of the decision tools developed in the course of this work and would welcome the support of JEMRA in this regard.

Main points discussed On Milk and Milk Product (MMP) Manufacturing Process (see endnote iii)

Other Points
CCFH54 also made changes to the proposed draft Annex II on Fish and Fishery Products and agreed with the proposal of the PWG to add a new Annex IV that would capture both new technologies and information removed from Annex III related to water fit-for-purpose assessment and water safety management as these were relevant to all commodity-focused annexes as well as the general guidelines.


CCFH54 considered the outcome of the work of a one-circular EWG, followed by a virtual PWG based on CCFH53’s decision to initiate the revision of the existing CXG 73. The EWG and VWG was chaired by Japan and co-chaired by Chile.

Main Outcome
CCFH54 agreed to forward the draft revised guidelines for advancement by CAC472, noting that all references to water remained in square brackets and that this document had been aligned with CXC 1. CCFH54 also agreed to revisit this text as soon as the Annex II on Fish and Fishery Products of the Guidelines for the Safe Use and Reuse of Water in Food Production and Processing (CXG 100) would be completed.

Main Points Discussed
Main text
(see endnote iv)
Annex on the control measures for Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnifcus in bivalve molluscs
With regards to environmental hygiene control,
CCFH54 agreed to remove the words “having jurisdiction” from this paragraph as all competent authorities possess such a jurisdiction. With regards to Handling,
storage, and transport, CCFH54 agreed to delete the phrase “where stricter parameters are applied to the former” due to the removal of post-harvest processing.

Next Steps
CCFH54 agreed to forward the proposed draft revision on the Guidelines on the Application of General Principles of Food Hygiene to the Control of Pathogenic Vibrio Species in Seafood (CXG 73) to CAC47 for advancing it into the adoption step procedure, noting that all references to water remained in square brackets and that this document had been aligned with CXC 1. CCFH54 also agreed to revisit this text right after the Annex II on Fish and Fishery Products of the Guidelines for the Safe Use and Reuse of Water in Food Production and Processing (CXG 100) would be completed.


CCFH54 considered the outcome of an EWG chaired by Kenya and co-chaired by Bolivia and Nigeria. Kenya indicated the use of regional guidelines and codes of good hygienic practices related to street-vended foods to develop these proposed draft guidelines with a broad engagement of Codex Members and Observers. Some key decisions of the EWG were to retain the title as originally proposed and to develop a unique structure rather than aligning it with CXC 1, to adequately address core characteristics of traditional markets for foods.

Main Outcome
CCFH54 agreed to forward the proposed draft guidelines for food hygiene control measures in traditional markets for food to CAC47 for an accelerated final adoption. Once the text is adopted by CAC47, CCFH54 further requested the relevant FAO/WHO (Codex) Coordinating Committees to review their respective adopted regional texts on street-vended foods to ensure full consistency with CXC 1, as well as considering any follow-up action to be undertaken, e.g., revision, etc. Based on written comments received, a general agreement seemed to emerge to use these guidelines in addition to the existing regional texts. CCFH54 reviewed the document as presented in CRD 06, with two main outstanding issues related to live animals in markets and how water should be characterized in the text.

Main Points Discussed
WHO explained that they were in the process of developing a guideline on traditional markets for food that would focus primarily on the mitigation of public health risks arising from the human-animal interface in food markets including live animals. Such development was science-based, including systematic reviews, and a public consultation was foreseen for completion of the work within the next two years. Once the WHO guidelines are available, they may help to update the various existing Codex guidelines. Additional details are available below. (See endnote v)


Main Outcome
Pending further approval by CAC47 (upon outcome of the CCEXEC critical review) and based on the outcome of a PWG chaired by USA (compiled in CCFH54-CRD05 and amended in CRD 34), three proposals were discussed by the PWG in terms of revision of existing Codex texts. CCFH54 agreed with new works on the revision of existing Codex Guidelines on (a) the Control of Viruses in Food, (b) the Control of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Chicken Meat; (c) the Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Foods; and, (d) consequential work on alignment to adding references to the WOAH Code for Terrestrial Animals in existing Codex CXG 86. It also discussed food allergen in relation to CCFL work.

Main Points Discussed
Codex Guidelines on the Application of General Principles of Food Hygiene to the Control of Viruses in Food (CXG 79). Based on a joint proposal by Canada
and the Netherlands, the new work would include: an expansion of the scope to address Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) and emerging food vehicles such as frozen
berries or prepared foods; revisions of interventions along the food chain; addition of information on virus detection in food; any new considerations following the review of the various risk assessment models and also proposed to organize the annexes to cover the various commodities based on the latest JEMRA scientific advice (i.e., shellfish, prepared and ready-to-eat foods, fresh and frozen produce, pork and wild game meat), noting that the JEMRA response to the fifth request was still pending. The new work will be support-ed by an EWG, chaired by Canada and co-chaired by the Netherlands, while undertaking a full alignment with the general food hygiene code of practice CXC1, as necessary.

Codex Guidelines for the Control of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Chicken Meat (CXG 78). Based on a discussion paper prepared by USA with inputs from Brazil, Honduras and New Zealand, the new proposal would focus on pre-harvest and post-harvest interventions, practical interventions, methods of microbiological monitoring and pathogen characterization, while noting some concerns for the inclusion of molecular methods and that the background JEMRA scientific advice was already available. The new work will be supported by an EWG, chaired by USA and co-chaired by Australia, Brazil, Denmark, Honduras, and India, while undertaking a full alignment with the general food hygiene code of practice CXC1, as necessary.

Codex Guidelines on the Application of General Principles of Food Hygiene to the Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Foods (CXG 61). Based on a joint
proposal from Canada, France and the USA, the new work would consider additional control measures throughout the production-to-consumption chain;
microbiological monitoring methods; and, consumer practices. Te background JEMRA scientific avice was already available to begin this work. Ths work
will be supported by an EWG, chaired by the USA and co-chaired by Canada, China, and France.

Alignment of cross-referencing to the WOAH Code on
Terrestrial Animal Health Code in the Codex Guidelines for the control of Trichinella spp. in meat of Suidae (CXG 86).
Based on the adoption by the OIE/
WOAH of a revised Chapter 3.1.22 on Trichinellosis (Infection with Trichinella spp.) of the WOAH Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual) at its 90th General Session (May 2023), and that a minor amendment of the corresponding Chapter 8.18 in the Terrestrial Code would be proposed for adoption at the upcoming General Session (May 2024), the numbering of the Terrestrial Manual would be modified based on the above changes and, consequently, references to the Terres-trial Code in CXG 86 under chapters 3.2, 7.2.1 and 10 would need to be updated.

Food allergens. CCFH54 noted the suggestion from CCFL47 to ensure consistency between the Code of Practice on Allergen Management for Food Business Operators (CXC 80) and new provisions on food allergens under discussion by CCFL to amend relevant provisions of the General Standard for the Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods (CXS 1) could be needed in the future and suggested that a Codex Member prepare a discussion paper for consideration at CCFH55, based on the outcomes of CCFL48.

All Codex texts elaborated by the CCFH and currently ‘in force’ are all compiled at

CCFH54 full report is to accessible at lnk=1&

All CCFH54 working documents, audio recording of the session, and Conference Room Documents (CRDs) are all available at

i STEC in Fresh Leafy Vegetables. The most substantives discussions related to the conditions under which (a) the treatments applied to control STEC of these vegetables intended to be consumed raw were reduced due to the shape of leaves, (b) the competent authority would require a risk assessment to identify necessary measures to ensure safety of the fresh leafy vegetables; (c) flexibility was provided to the type of indicator organisms; (d) water testing would be appropriate to verify a corrective action; (e) an adequate access to, and use of, hygienic and sanitary facilities including means to effectively clean and dry hands would help in risk prevention, as well as not have prior contact with animals, as STEC can persist in manure, biosolids and other natural fertilizers for weeks or even months, if treatment of these materials was inadequate; (f) fresh leafy vegetables should be cooled to appropriate refrigeration temperatures (instead of <7°C) given that, based on available scientific evidence, E. coli O157:H7 and other STEC are unlikely to grow on fresh leafy vegetables at any lower temperatures, while noting that based on the JEMRA report, cooking was the only effective means of eliminating STEC; (g) biocides may used in in processing water to prevent microbial growth; (h) the design of equipment, knives and other cutting tools, and any other contact surfaces would minimize the potential for harborage or transfer of STEC; (i) there may be a possibility of not detecting STEC even when present during microbiological testing of fresh leafy vegetables and processing water; and (j) documents and records about how long microbiological test results should be retained for an appropriate period of time to allow trends to be estimated, as even small increases of the populations of indicator microorganisms over time may suggest an existing or an emerging issue in the
production process (requiring remediation).

ii STEC in Sprouts. The most substantives discussions related to the conditions under which (a) the reference to the consumption without cooking or other microbicidal treatment would be replaced by the fact there were other treatment than antimicrobial ones; (b) the analysis of microorganism test results over time may help growers identify emerging issues; (c) references were added to CXG 100; (d) reference to section3. of CXC 53 was deleted; (e) the time period before harvesting of seed should be maximized; (f) clean and dry hands played an important role in prevention; (g) reference to section 3.2.3 and section 6 of CXC 1 were deleted to avoid the contraint of updates during the future realignment of the guidelines; (h) references to non-Codex documents were removed; (i) the same note relating to temperature as per fresh leafy vegetables was added; (j) the purpose of rinsing after seed treatment was to remove chemical residues; (k) that microbiological testing of sprouts could not verify the safety of the product, it was agreed to remove a reference to “the safety of the product”; (l) the testing spent sprout irrigation water or in-process sprouts collected during sprouting would increase the likelihood of detecting the pathogens that may be present in seed, while enabling early detection of contamination in the production batch before products enter the marketplace; and it was noted that testing spent sprout irrigation water is preferred over testing sprouts themselves because water may pick up bacteria as it passes through the production batch, making it easier to collect a representative sample. If initial testing indicates the possible presence of STEC, additional testing for STEC is recommended.

iii Safe Use and Reuse of Water in MMP manufacturing. CCFH54 agreed with most of the revisions to the Annex of CCFH54 CRD 04 containing the report of a PWG which advanced the work based on the outcome of the EWG. Some discussions occurred about the optional nature of udder washing at the
level of the primary production and transport from the farm and focused on situations for dirty udder. At the dairy manufacturing plant level, references to “competent authorities” without further qualification replaced “relevant competent authorities, in most cases the municipality”. With regards the technologies for recovery and treatment of water, the examples about the uncertain microbiological quality were replaced by an example in case of no microbiological testing, when testing indicates poor quality, or when the RO system was unvalidated. With regards the reference to the known presence of pathogenic microorganisms in reuse water, there had been different views on whether a disinfection treatment was only needed to be undertaken “when required”, while noting that (a) the dairy industry was committed to and acting upon minimizing the formation of biofilms (which may harbor pathogens) (b) biofilm formation was very slow and that it could be more appropriate to indicate that operations “may” contain microorganisms rather than “they were known” to contain them. In relation to water ft-for-purpose assessment and water safety management, CCFH54 agreed that paragraphs 32 to 63 (in CCFH54 CRD 04) were transferred from this annex to a new annex addressing cross-cutting issues (future annex IV of the guidelines). In case the reuse water system would fail it was a critically important that a back-up ft-for-purpose water supply point
shall be in place and therefore in the section about the Dairy Manufacturing Plant, the following phrase was added: “a back-up ft-for-purpose water supply such as an external potable water source that can be used in case a reuse water treatment system is not effective or functioning properly should be available.”. In relation to examples of ft-for-purpose water applications in dairy plants, and in response to a question as to whether microbiocidal treatments did include “heat”, it was clarified that it was a broad term that referred to a treatment that kills microorganisms and therefore could include a heat treatment and should not be confused with an antimicrobial treatment. In relation to Figure 1, the two question marks “??” were replaced with “xx” to reflect the unknown number of recirculated cycles of water that may occur. As per Figure 2, as ‘pure water’ was not defied in these guidelines, it was agreed to remove the term from this figure and simply refer to “water going to tanks”, since the term was only used to clarify that none of the other substances from the previous step, e.g., acid, were going on to the next stage. With regards “human pathogens”, it was explained that it referred to agents which were pathogenic to humans and not to pathogens of human origin, so that the terms “human pathogens” were replaced with “agents pathogenic to humans”. The term “identification” was replaced with “assessment” in para. 46, viewed as a more accurate term to indicate the due consideration of the pH, turbidity, etc.

iv Pathogenic Vibrio Species in Seafood. Th discussions within the VWG mainly focused on: i) defining seafood, treated/partially treated, and clean water; ii) addressing water issues; and iii) establishing facility temperature requirements. Further revisions were made to ensure a further alignment with the Code of Good Hygiene Practices (CXC 1) and additional comments received for example to remove “seaweed” from the definition of “seafood”; to introduce a revised definition for “partially treated”; to include the definition set for “water fit-for-purpose” from CXG 100; while “clean water” being replaced throughout the document with “water ft-for-purpose”; and, keep the temperature threshold of 10ºC to limit growth of pathogenic Vibrio spp.

CCFH54 further agreed i) to use the wording “naturally occurring” instead of “autochthonous”; ii) to reinforce some wording (“should” instead of “can”); and, consistent with the change in definition, iii) to remove the word “seaweed” when referring to seafoods. CCFH54 further agreed with other proposed changes. Among those, here are the most significant related to issues related to water: (i) despite intense discussions and diverging views between “clean water” and “water fit-for-purpose”; (ii) while noting the definition of “water fit-for-purpose” introduced the concept of risk-based approach (not captured in the definition for clean water); (iii) it was also noted that “clean water” was however consistently referenced throughout the document and that “water fit-for-purpose” was deliberately employed in specific sections to prevent repetitive mentions of « potable water »; and finally, it was overall agreed that clean water and water fit-for-purpose served distinct roles and were utilized in different contexts within the document. With regards to water used for storage and handling of seafood aboard fishing vessels intended for raw or partially treated seafoods, diverging views were expressed: (i) water ft-for-purpose is too vague and does not give clear risk management guidance, and in certain contexts, it would be necessary to use specific water types, such as potable water, clean water, or clean seawater; (ii) priority should be given to potable water, with clean water serving as an alternative, if potable water was not feasible or readily available; (iii) clean water was readily understood; (iv) water fit-for-purpose was more appropriate, as it
reflected better efforts to be made irrespective to the water source available; and (v) a specific context shall not impact the safety of the food.

It was recalled that CAC46 adopted its Guidelines for the Safe Use and Reuse of Water in Food Production and Processing (CXG 100) in (November) 2023, to introduce a risk-based approach for the safe use of water, taking into consideration differences in water availability and accessibility. It was further noted that Annex II on Fish and Fishery Products, currently under development, would be the appropriate place to address guidance on the use of different water types (e.g. clean water, potable water, etc.) with an attempt to align with the water ft-for-purpose concept, to avoid inconsistencies across food hygiene texts. While some Members were of the view that water-related provisions in all CCFH texts should be now aligned with the text in the CXG 100, to ensure a consistent approach, others were of the view that a cross-reference to CXG 100 or simply refer to water fit-for-purpose was not enough. It was recalled that the definition of “water ft-for-purpose” requires identification, evaluation, and understanding of potential microbial hazards and other relevant factors. It was also recalled that JEMRA made efforts to define suitable types of water across various contexts and introduced the concept of “fit-for-purpose” to describe more accurately the specific requirements for the intended uses of the water type, such as handling and storage, noting that the quality of water required for these different intended uses may be different. In view of the difficulty to reach a consensus on this matter, CCFH54 agreed to place in square brackets all water-related wording and focus the discussion on other aspects of the document.

With regards to the Footnote 1 in the introduction, Vibrio harveyii was removed from the list as it is primarily a pathogen of fishes, rather than a human pathogen. With regards to the section on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, CCFH54 agreed to introduce the following text in the draft Guidance: “Virulent strains are seldom detected in the environment or foods. In contrast to strains from clinical cases that will always possess these virulence factors, the probability of detection of environmental or food strains, including seafoods, which possess virulence markers will be very low as most do not contain known virulence markers and their distribution within seafood and across growing areas is not homogeneous. In addition, current selective media cannot distinguish colonies of virulent strains from those of avirulent strains. Given this limitation, failure to detect virulent in foods does not mean there is no risk to consumers”. With regards, to Vibrio cholerae, CCFH54 agreed state that “Epidemic cholera can be spread by factors such as: infected travelers and the food trade. These factors, but also climate change, may increase the probability of an epidemic in the newly established environments. Detection frequencies of choleragenic strains of V. cholerae from legal food trade are very low and have seldom been implicated in cholera outbreaks.”. With regards to Vibrio vulnifius, CCFH54 agreed to remove the sentence which, while being scientifically accurate, would put some shade of doubts on the feasibility of sustaining oyster survival under saline conditions exceeding 30 ppt and whether such level of technical detail was necessary in these Guidelines.

Regarding the Scope, it was recalled that it had been decided only to include the three pathogenic Vibrio species mentioned above, and on the Use section,
CCFH54 agreed to delete “particularly Annex II on Fishery Products”. As per the definition of “Refrigeration”, CCFH54 agreed to add “and maintaining” into the definition. As per the definition of “Partially treated”, CCFH54 agreed to include steam and blanching as examples. With regard to the « Temperature » section, CCFH54 agreed to the revised sentence “Th facility should be capable of controlling product temperature during processing of raw seafood at a temperature of 10ºC or lower” while acknowledging that multiple control measures would exist beyond ambient temperature control. CCFH54 also agreed not to specify the type of Clostridium botulinum. CCFH54 agreed that « areas where refrigeration is necessary should be equipped with a calibrated thermometer and that under “Awareness and responsibilities”, CCFH54 agreed to remove the words “institutional establishment”, “special”, “various fishing techniques”, and replace the word “industry” with “Food Business Operators (FBOs)”. With regard to “Washing and processing » CCFH agreed to delete the second sentence of para. 80 referring to potable running water, and
clean water could be used as an example. With regards to consumer education, CCFH54 agreed to insert the wording “or clean between” to offer additional
options. With regards to susceptible subpopulations, CCFH54 agreed to remove a bullet point not directly relevant to foodborne illness, noting the paragraph
included in the introduction section to highlight the risk associated with transmission of pathogenic vibrio through open wounds. As per the analytical methods, CFH54 agreed to include the phrase “in some circumstances” in this paragraph.

v Traditional Markets. The title of the proposed draft guidelines was retained as originally proposed, given that WHO indicated its consistency with WHO terminology. It was further noted that traditional food markets lacked clarity and could be understood to be the type of food marketed. As part of the introduction, the phrase “in the framework of a One Health approach” was added to acknowledge that the efforts to improve food safety are part of a broader
taking into consideration of the integration of human, animal, and environmental health. The proposed scope remained unchanged as the point raised about markets selling live animals would be addressed in section 4.3 of the guidelines through proper guidance to avoid animal-human contamination, by keeping
away the respective vending areas. The document includes a definition of « Food Grade » as well as “Food Vendor” (and the term FBO throughout the text was not retained); “Traditional markets for food» with added examples about “street food markets, local markets, public markets, community markets, municipal markets, open-air markets, wet markets and farmers markets.”; and the “Market Authority” as “the entity or person responsible for the administration of the traditional market which may include market committees and associations of food business operators”. As part of the General requirements, precisions were added to indicate that risk factors could be specific to a particular locality and/or to a type of operation. The role of the competent authorities were also qualified to refer to the enforcement of regulatory measures. A new paragraph (4.4.5) was added to illustrate the role of a One Health approach in minimizing the potential risks from wild animals and meat of wildlife at the market place and in regional trade. Regarding food business operators, the importance of the behavior of wearing clean clothing as part of food safety practices was paramount. Smoking and consuming chewing-gums should not be allowed due to related food safety concerns. Noting a proposal to define community health workers, it was to ensure there was clarity on the type of skills such workers would need to provide training, CCFH54 considered that since the text indicated to include these “as appropriate” there was sufficient flexibility on whether they were involved or not according to the local context and hence a definition was not needed. To ensure that record
keeping did not become overburdensome, especially for small FBOs, the words “as appropriate to support food safety” was added at the end of 5.5.2. Regarding Location, design, layout, and structures, while noting that some markets may be very small and have limited structure, it was considered important to bring more flexibility and recognize that not all structures needed to be approved by competent authorities but simply reviewed. Others indicated the importance
of maintaining approval. In this context both review and approval were included. In addition to competent authorities, the text was also revised to indicate that market authorities or FBO organizations could also undertake these tasks as necessary. In order to avoid being too much prescriptive on market structures, reference to the requirement of being « roofed » was removed and replaced with “appropriate features/facilities” to minimize its impact especially in cases of extreme weather conditions. As mentioned for other texts under consideration by CCFH54, an extensive discussion occurred on the type of water to be referred to there and reference to « potable water » only was agreed, with a cross-reference to CXG 100, noting that this definition was broad and did not preclude disinfection of the water. The reference to “running” water was also removed, as potable water may be provided in different ways. Changes were also made in other parts of the text for consistency with these decisions about Sanitation; Food preparation (where specific provisions were added for the management of fats and oils used for frying, for quality and safety concerns, in relation to the need for being renewed on a regular basis whenever there is an apparent change in physical/chemical characteristics, such as dark color, intense foaming, smoke formation, or sensory changes, such as aroma and taste); Serving Food; Consumers responsibility (where the intent of this section was to identify the role that consumers could play and hence it was retained as written).


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